the belief that the spirits of
the dead have both the ability and the inclination to communicate
with the living. Since prehistoric times
shamans have been contacting the spirit world on behalf of the tribe.
or the "spirit
is seen by spiritualists, not as a static place, but as one in which
spirits continue to evolve. These two beliefs: that contact with
spirits is possible, and that spirits are more advanced than humans,
lead spiritualists to a third belief, that spirits are capable of
providing useful knowledge about moral and ethical
as well as about the nature of God.
Some spiritualists will speak of a concept which they refer to as "spirit
spirits, often contacted, who are relied upon for spiritual
a branch of spiritualism developed byAllan
today practiced mostly in Continental
Europe and Latin
especially in Brazil,
Spiritualists believe that spirit mediums are gifted, but that anyone may become a medium through study and practice. They believe that spirits are capable of growth and perfection, progressing through higher spheres or planes, and that the afterlife is not a static state, but one in which spirits evolve. The two beliefs—that contact with spirits is possible, and that spirits may dwell on a higher plane—lead to a third belief, that spirits can provide knowledge about moral and ethical issues, as well as about God and the afterlife. Many believers therefore speak of "spirit guides"—specific spirits, often contacted, and relied upon for worldly and spiritual guidance.
According to spiritualists, anyone may receive spirit messages, but formal communication sessions (séances) are held by mediums, who claim thereby to receive information about the afterlife.Spiritualists often set March 31, 1848, as the beginning of their movement. On that date, Kate and Margaret Foxof Hydesville, New York reported that they had made contact with a spirit. The spirit was said to have communicated through rapping noises, audible to onlookers. The evidence of the senses appealed to practically-minded Americans, and the Fox sisters became a sensation; Amy and Isaac Post, Hicksite quakers in Rochester, New York had long been acquainted with the Fox family, and took the two girls into their home in the late spring of 1848. Immediately convinced of the veracity of the sisters' communications, they became early converts and introduced the young mediums to their circle of radical Quaker friends.
Spiritualism flourished for a half century without canonical texts or formal organization, attaining cohesion through periodicals, tours by trance lecturers, camp meetings, and the missionary activities of accomplished mediums. By the late 1880s the credibility of the informal movement had weakened due to accusations of fraud perpetrated by mediums, and formal spiritualist organizations began to appear. Spiritualism is currently practiced primarily through various denominational churches in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.
I Samuel 28 -
the Ghost of the Prophet Samuel