-J-
Jagatha: (Sanskrit)
The universe.
Jahnu: 
In Hindu lore, an ancient king who adopted the Ganges River
Jaimini, Maharishi: 
A sage who wrote an elucidation of sections of Maharishi Parashara's work. This became the basis for another system of Astrology in India
Jainism: 
A world religion begun as a reform movement of Hinduism. by Mahavira (b. 599 BC ) who denied the existence or worship of a supreme deity and taught enlightenment through strict self-denial and non-violence. Later followers deified Mahavira himself, calling him the 24th Tirthankara (last great savior teacher) who descended from heaven without sin and with all knowledge.
Jalapatanasaham: 
A sensitive point in Vedic astrology relating to going on a voyage. One of many used and similar in idea to Arabic parts
Janmarashi: 
In Vedic astrology, the sign occupied by the Moon at birth 
Janus:
Ancient Roman god of gates and doors, hence the god invoked at the beginning of any undertaking.  Usually portrayed as having two faces, one looking forward and one looking into the past.
Jataka:
A type of Buddhist literature consisting of stories of the previous incarnations of the being who became the Buddha. A collection of 547 such stories is included in the Pali canon. Many of the Jataka tales include ancient folk motifs from pre-Buddhist India. In Buddhist communities, the Jataka tales are often used to teach and reflect upon the virtues of generosity, loyalty, and self-sacrifice.
Jeffers, Joseph: 
Founder of Temple of Yaweh?
Jehovah:
Incorrect reading of the proper name of Israel's deity, joining the consonants of YHWH to the vowels of Adonai. A medieval Christian invention, Jehovah became popular in some traditional English translations of the Bible.  The four letters are not a word, but a sentence, which reads literally, "I AM WHAT IS". When you smooth it out, it reads, I AM (all) THAT IS.  The name of the Roman god, Jove, is also derived from YHVH.
Jehovah�s Witnesses: 
Official name of the religion that accepts the authority of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society
Jerome:(348-420) 
Also known as Eusebius Hieronymous, greatest of the early Roman Catholic Bible scholars. Jerome was the leading translator of the authoritative Latin translation of the Bible, the Vulgate.
Jesuits:
A Catholic religious order for men founded by Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) in 1534 and approved by Pope Paul III in 1540. The constitution for the community, written by Ignatius and approved in 1550, focused on two tasks: the reform of the Roman Catholic Church, particularly in response to Protestantism, and service in the foreign missions, especially in those areas that had been just discovered. To fulfill these tasks, in addition to the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience (to one's superior in the order) Jesuits were required to take an additional "fourth vow" of obedience to the pope and were freed of traditional obligations associated with religious life, particularly a distinctive garment and the recitation of the Divine Office, daily prayers at specified hours. The Jesuits were most associated with spiritual revival, especially through the Spiritual Exercises (1522-41) of Ignatius, and education. Many of the important theologians of the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Catholic Reformation period were Jesuits. Although marred by several conflicts during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, including their dispute with Jansenism, the Chinese rites controversy, and the suppression of the Society by Clement XIV in 1773 (although later restored by Pius VII in 1814), the Jesuits remain one of the most important orders in the contemporary Church, particularly in the field of education.
Jesus:
1)The leader of group of religious radicals in Jerusalem.(approximately 25 AD) 2)An avatar who attained a high level of attunement which enabled him to become a bodily vehicle for the Christ for a period of three years.  3) An aspect of God, according to the Jesus cults. The name �Jesus� corresponds with the Hebrew �Joshua� and means �Jehovah is salvation.� (See Jesus)
Jesus Christ
The mythological founder of the Christian religion. Christ is the Gnostic title of the only begotten Son of God.  By giving this title to Jesus, the Christians are proclaiming that their Jesus is the only true manifestation of God.
Jesus Only Movement:
A movement in some Pentecostal circles which maintains that there is only one person in the Godhead: Jesus. It teaches that the person of the Father became the person of the Son who then became the person of the Holy Spirit and that the persons are consecutive not simultaneous. This is in opposition to the Trinitarian interpretation. They also believe that baptism is necessary for salvation and that speaking in tongues are evidence of true conversion.
Jew:
Originally a term referring to an inhabitant of Judea. Later, it was applied to adherents of Judaism.
Jihad:(Arabic)
Literally, "struggle," more popularly, "holy war"; a term used to refer to the Muslim commitment to impose the teachings and law of Islam throughout the world, by force where that is considered necessary or appropriate.
Jinn:
In Islam, an invisible order of beings, created of fire, who possess extraordinary powers and, like humans, are accountable for their actions. Some jinn are good, others evil.  Angel.  Also known as djin and genie.
Jivas: (Sanskrit)
The living soul. Found in the writings of Alice A. Bailey.
Jivatman ( Jeevatman: (Sanskirt)
The soul within the human sphere,  the individual soul
Jnana Yoga:
The yoga of knowledge.  One of the seven major schools of yoga.
John the Baptist:
A first-century figure who appears in Josephus's Antiquities, the New Testament, and later Christian and Gnostic sources, and is seen by Christians as a forerunner of Jesus. Probably aligned with Essene or Zealot movements in Judaism, John preached the end of the age and preached baptism for the purification of sin.
John the Divine:(John of Patmos)
Mythological character purported to be the author of The Gospel of John and The Revelation (or Apocalypse) of John.
Judaism: 
World religion founded approximately 1500 BC by the prophet Moses (Thothmoses - prince and high-priest of Egypt)  The foundation of Judaism is the Torah (Genesis through Deuteronomy), which is said to have been written by  Moses.  The Israelites returned to the promised land of Canaan and became a small but powerful nation there under the rule of King David and his son Solomon. After Solomon�s death the kingdom split into a northern kingdom called Israel and a southern kingdom called Judah (the name of David�s tribe). The northern kingdom was conquered and decimated by the Assyrians in 722 BC, after which the term Judeans, or Jews, gradually came into use to refer to all Israelites. The Jews suffered conquests by a succession of foreign powers: the Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and finally the Romans in the first century BC. Throughout this period the Jews developed a strong sense of national identity, identification with the Promised Land, and anticipation of a coming Messiah (Anointed Prince).  There are three main branches of modern Judaism: Orthodox (traditional, literal adherence to the Torah as interpreted by the Talmud), Conservative (a middle position advocating traditional beliefs and practices up to a point), and Reform (liberal, non-literal stance on the Torah and Talmud; often non-religious or secular with emphasis on Jewish culture).
Judas Iscariot:
The possible founder of the Zealot movement in 1st century Judea and author of The Book of Revelation. In the mythology of the New Testament, one of the original  disciples who betrayed Jesus to the authorities for 30 pieces of silver..The Gospel of Judas says that it was not a betrayal but that he did it at Jesus' request. See Judas Iscariot
Judism:
Judgment Day:
Christian term for the imminent last period of time when Christ, or God, will send all human beings either to heaven or to hell, based on their righteousness.  Originally derived from Zoroasterism.
Jupiter: (derived from Hebrew "Jah"-God and Latin "Pater"-Father)  
Supreme divinity of the ancient Romans. Originally a native Italian sky god identified with Zeus, Jupiter controlled weather changes, rain, and storms. Maintaining the sanctity of treaties and oaths, he was the chief protector of Rome; he was worshiped by magistrates entering office and by generals returning victorious.
Justification by faith alone
Fundamental principle of the Protestant Reformation that the divine act in which God declares the sinner to be innocent of his sins. Salvation depends entirely on the grace of God rather than on human actions.
Justin Martyr: (ca. 100-165)
Early Christian apologist. Born in Samaria, he came to Rome about 140.  Rejected by  Platonic and Pythagorean schools, he later adopted a literalist view of Christianity.He developed a distinctively literalist reading of the Old Testament and was one of the first to deploy quotations from the Gospels in his attacks on Jews, Gnostics, and other Christian thinkers. His authentic works are the First Apology and the Dialogue with Trypho the Jew